Research Studies

 

LION’S MANE (HERICIUM ERINACEUS)

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Lion’s Mane Mushroom is a herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to promote healthy digestion. This popular superfood offers health benefits including antibiotic, antioxidant, anti-fatigue, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and neuroprotective effects.

 

LION’S MANE MAY:

 

  • REDUCE INFLAMMATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS, SUPPORTS IMMUNE SYSTEM

Lion’s Mane is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Antioxidants are molecules that fight free radicals in your body. Free radicals are compounds that can cause chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. They are believed to be at the root of many modern illnesses, including heart disease, cancer and autoimmune disorders. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, preventing them from causing inflammation or damaging your cells. Several animal studies have found that lion’s mane extract reduced markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in rodents. 1,2,3,4

  • IMPROVE COGNITIVE FUNCTION (DUE TO AGING & STRESS)

Your brain naturally slows down with aging, the symptoms associated like memory loss and lack of focus are caused by neurons shrinking and brain cells damaged. Studies show that lion’s mane mushroom can actually support your brain health by stimulating the creation of two important compounds: nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). NGF and BDNF are proteins that stimulate the production of new cells and strengthen existing ones. NGF also plays an important role in forming myelin, the sheath around nerve cells that helps brain cells do their job. BDNF increases brain plasticity, which helps your brain cells stay resilient in the face of stress or aging. In 2008, a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial found that lion’s mane effectively improved cognitive function in a randomized group of 15 older adults. 5,6,7,8

  • PROTECT AGAINST PARKINSON AND ALZHEIMER

The brain’s ability to grow and form new connections declines with age, which may explain why mental functioning gets worse in many older adults. Rodent studies found that lion’s mane potentially protects against the effects of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, including involuntary movement and memory loss. 9,10,11,12

 

  • IMPROVE MOOD AND FOCUS

Approximated one-third of residents in developed countries experience symptoms of anxiety and depression. Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major contributing factor. New animal research has found that lion’s mane as a powerful anti-inflammatory reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression in mice. In 2010, a study in 30 women is conducted on the effects of lion’s mane mushroom. At the end of the one-month study, the lion’s mane mushroom group reported a small reduction in depression scores. 13,14,15,16

 

  • BOOST FOCUS, PROMOTES LEARNING AND MEMORY

Lion’s mane can boost your focus. Reduced inflammation, improves blood flow, which provides your brain with more oxygen. More oxygen in your grain means better brain performance. The antioxidants in lion’s mane also promote learning and memory, possibly by strengthening your brain cells and stimulating the growth of new neurons. 17,18

 

  • ASSIST RECOVERY FROM NERVOUS SYSTEM INJURIES

Research has found that lion’s mane may help speed recovery from nervous system injuries by stimulating the growth and repair of nerve cells. Lion’s mane has been shown to reduce recovery time by 23-41% when given to rats with nervous system injuries. In one study, high doses of lion’s mane given to rats immediately after a stroke helped decrease inflammation and reduce the size of stroke-related brain by 44%. 19,20,21

 

ACETYL L-CARNITINE (ALCAR)

INTRODUCTION:

 

ALCAR is an amino acid produced naturally by the body to generate energy. It is found in animal protein - namely, red meats. The acetyl group of ALCAR enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier, its most effective role is within the cerebellum. A major function of ALCAR is to transport fatty acids across the membrane of the Mitochondria (powerhouse of cell)  in order to generate ATP (energy currency of the body). During this process it converted into L-Carnitine as it donates its Acetyl group. The acetyl group donated will support the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is accountable for learning, memory, and cognitive function. 

 

ALCAR MAY:

 

  • IMPROVE AGED BRAIN FUNCTION & LEARNING ABILITY

The effects of ALCAR on memory and learning capacity and on brain synaptic functions of aged rats were examined. The result indicates that ALCAR increases synaptic neurotransmission in the brain and consequently improves learning capacity in aging rats. The administration of ALCAR has been found to modify spontaneous and evoked electrocortical activity in young rats, and, in the old rats, to improve learning ability and to increase the number NMDA receptors in the whole brain. Aging is associated with a reduction in maximal density of NMDA-sensitive glutamate binding sites in rat hippocampus. This reduction is attenuated after long-term administration with ALCAR (10mg/Kg i.p once a day for 4 months). 22,23,24

 

  • REDUCE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FATIGUE:

A research has done on ALCAR treatment in elderly patients with fatigue. The result shows that administering ALCAR may reduce both physical and mental fatigue in elderly and improves both the cognitive status and physical functions. 25

 

  • IMPROVE COGNITIVE FUNCTION:

People with low Carnitine levels see a major decrease in brain function. Taking ALCAR improves that brain function. In recent study, 8 out of 14 participants reversed a diagnosis of dementia and returned to their full cognitive abilities after taking ALCAR daily. 26

 

  • LOWER INFLAMMATION:

ALCAR decreases inflammation in healthy adults. Part of it is because ALCAR increases glutathione, your body’s master antioxidant. Glutathione is awesome for hacking hangovers. And, as it turns out, ALCAR decreases damage to brain cells after drinking too. 27, 28

  • BOOST BLOOD CIRCULATION:

In healthy adults, ALCAR increased circulation and nutrient-rich blood flow after a high-fat meal. Good blood flow is an essential part of muscle and brain function. 29

 

  • IMPROVE FOCUS AND MOOD:

To determine the safety and efficacy of carnitine treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled double crossover trial has been run. The result shows that treatment with carnitine significantly decreased the attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD. 30

 

L-TYROSINE

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

L-Tyrosine is an amino acid found in the high-protein diet that is precursor for three important neurotransmitters: Dopamine (Mood and motivation), Norepinephrine (Muscle Recovery & Blood Flow), Adrenaline (Focus and Drive). When stress depletes your neurotransmitter stores, tyrosine helps replenish them, allowing you to stay mentally sharp for longer, especially when you’re under pressure. 31

 

L-TYROSINE MAY:

 

  • IMPROVE MOOD AND EASE DEPRESSION:

Tyrosine also turns into dopamine, a central neurotransmitter that controls pleasure and motivation. Dopamine also influences serotonin, and together the two play a central role in regulating your mood. Depressed women who took tyrosine saw an improvement in mood. When they switched to placebo, the improvement disappeared, and when they went back to tyrosine, the improvement returned. It suggests that tyrosine improves symptoms of depression. Several other studies in humans and rodents support tyrosine’s mood-lifting benefits. 32, 33, 34

 

  • IMPROVE MENTAL PERFORMANCE IN STRESSFUL SITUATIONS

Stress can negatively affect your reasoning, memory, attention and knowledge by decreasing neurotransmitters. Rodents who were exposed to cold (an environmental stressor) had impaired memory due to a decline in neurotransmitters. When these rodents were given a tyrosine supplement, the decline in neurotransmitters was reversed and their memory was restored. A study that is conducted on 22 undergraduates shows supplementing with tyrosine significantly improved working memory during a mentally demanding task. There is evidence that tyrosine may benefit healthy individuals exposed to demanding situational conditions. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40

  • IMPROVE ALERTNESS FOLLOWING THE LOSS OF SLEEP

The behavioral effects of tyrosine were examined during an episode of continuous nighttime work involving one night’s sleep loss. Tyrosine administration was associated with significant improvement on alertness for three hours longer. 41

 

L-THEANINE

 

INTRODUCTION: 

 

Amino acid found in both green and black tea, a relaxing agent without sedation. L-Theanine has a chemical structure very similar to Glutamate (An Excitatory Neurotransmitter), relaxation is achieved by its Glutamate blocking activity. 

 

L-THEANINE MAY:

 

  • RELIEVE ANXIETY AND STRESS

Study found that L-Theanine reduces physiological and psychological stress by blocking glutamate receptors in the brain. One of the primary reasons people experience an anti-anxiety effect when taking L-Theanine is due to this glutamate blocking activity. A study conducted in Korea suggests that L-Theanine containing tablets promote the release of alpha waves related to mental relaxation and concentration in young adult males. 42, 43

 

  • ENHANCE MENTAL FOCUS

The researchers found that people who took 100mg of L-Theanine made fewer errors in an attention task than those in the placebo group. Drinking 50mg of Caffeine or combining the L-Theanine and Caffeine also improved people’s focus. 44

 

  • INCREASE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE & MENTAL FOCUS

The L-Theanine and Caffeine combination are beneficial for improving performance on cognitively demanding tasks. The combination also led to faster simple reaction time, faster numeric working reaction time and improved sentence verification accuracy. In 2016, researchers reviewed the existing research on the benefits of L-Theanine and concluded that this compound could benefit a person’s mental and physical health. They noted that it seems to have neuroprotective effects, which improve brain function. 45, 46, 47

 

  • IMPROVE SLEEP QUALITY

In a randomized, double blind study, L-Theanine was shown to significantly improve sleep quality in boys with ADHD. A 2018 study found that people reported having greater sleep satisfaction after taking 450-900mg of L-Theanine daily for 8 weeks. The study participants had generalized anxiety disorder and were taking antidepressants. 48, 49

 

  • BOOST IMMUNITY

Study found that L-Theanine prevented the cold and flu and had an immune boosting effect “enhancing gamma-delta T cell function”. Its potential anti-inflammatory effects could also help fight illness. 50,51

 

CAFFEINE 

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Caffeine is a stimulatory anti-sleep compound extracted from coffee beans. It is classified as a nootropic because it sensitizes neurons and provides mental stimulation. 

 

Neuron breaks down Adenosine Triphosphate for energy, one of the byproduct is Adenosine. Throughout the day, Adenosine accumulates in neuron. Some adenosine exiting the neurons which can bind to adenosine receptors to cause sleepiness. The structures of caffeine and adenosine are very similar, and caffeine prevents receptors from activation.

 

Caffeine tolerance often happens to people who are chronic coffee drinkers. This may be due to the neurons synthesizing more adenosine receptors to compensate for the receptors blocked. hence, the sleep inducing effects of adenosine may intensify if a chronic caffeine user suddenly stops taking caffeine.

 

CAFFEINE MAY:

 

  • IMPROVE MOOD

Caffeine has the ability to block the brain signaling molecule adenosine. This causes an increase in other signaling molecules, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. This change in brain messaging is thought to benefit your mood and brain function. A recent study linked drinking two to three cups of caffeinated drink per day to a 45% lower risk of suicide. Another study reported a 13% lower risk of depression in caffeine consumers. When it comes to mood, more caffeine is not necessarily better. Indeed, a study found that a second cup of coffee produced no further benefits unless it was consumed at least 8 hours after the first cup. 52, 53, 54, 55, 56

 

  • IMPROVE BRAIN FUNCTION

Studies have suggested that drinking coffee may help enhance some thinking skills and slow the mental decline that comes with age. One review reports that after participants ingested 37.5-450mg of caffeine, they had improved alertness, short-term recall and reaction time. Drinking between three and five cups of coffee per day may also reduce the risk of brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s by 28-60%. 57, 58, 59,60

 

  • BOOST METABOLISM AND SPEED UP WEIGHT LOSS

Because of caffeine’s ability to stimulate the central nervous system, it may increase metabolism by up to 11% and fat burning by up to 13%. 61,62,63

 

  • ENHANCE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

Caffeine may increase the use of fat as fuel. This is beneficial because it can help the glucose stored in muscles last longer, potentially delaying the time it takes your muscles to reach exhaustion. Caffeine may also improve muscle contractions and increase tolerance to fatigue. 64, 65

 

INOSITOL

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Inositol is a type of sugar that helps provide structure to your cells. It also influences the action of insulin, a hormone essential for blood sugar control. In addition, it affect chemical messengers in your brain, such as serotonin and dopamine. 66, 67, 68

 

TAURINE

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Taurine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in your body. It is particularly concentrated in your brain, eyes, heart and muscles. It is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid. Its direct roles include: 69

  • Maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte balance in your cells

  • Forming bile salts, which play an important role in digestion

  • Regulating minerals such as calcium within your cells

  • Supporting the general function of your central nervous system and eyes

  • Regulating immune system health and antioxidant function

 

B-COMPLEX VITAMINS

 

INTRODUCTION: 

 

Most people will able get the recommended amounts of vitamins through diet alone, however factors like age, dietary choices, medical conditions and generics increase the body’s demand for B vitamins. B-complex vitamins are a group of important water-soluble vitamins for body. B-complex vitamins provide nutritive support for healthy hair and skin, nerve impulse transmission, immune system function and red blood cell formation. They also work together to aid in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. 

 

  • B2 (RIBOFLAVIN)

B2 helps convert food into energy and also acts as an antioxidant. 70

 

  • B3 (NIACIN)

B3 plays a role in cellular signaling, metabolism and DNA production and repair. 71

 

  • B5 (PATOTHENIC ACID)

B5 helps your body obtain energy from food and is also involved in hormone and cholesterol production. 72

 

  • B6 (PYRIDOXINE HCI)

B6 is involved in amino acid metabolism, red blood cell production and the creation of neurotransmitters. 73

 

  • B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN)

B12 is vital for neurological function, DNA production and red blood cell development. 74

 

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